Notes for Blogbook -- What It Means to be an Antiracist Teacher

This page is meant to provide the footnotes that accompany the blogbook, What It Means To Be An Antiracist Teacher: Cultivating Antiracist Orientations in The ELA Classroom. I'll be adding notes on this page as I continue to post the blogbook. 


  1. “Race.” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, accessed at:
  2. See pgs. 6-7 of W.E.B. Du Bois, “The Conservation of Races,” American Negro Academy, Occasional Papers, No. 2, (Washington, D.C.: American Negro Academy, 1897), pp. 5-15. Accessed at 
  3. Du Bois understood race as an historically changing and so unstable concept, as well as intersectional by today’s vocabulary. Over time, he was influenced by his increasing Marxian ideas. To read about his later views on race, see W.E.B. Du Bois, Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept, (New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 1940/2011); see also, Dan S. Green, and Earl Smith, “W.E.B. DuBois and the Concepts of Race and Class,” Phylon vol. 44, no. 4 (December 1, 1983), pp. 262–272.
  4. All four UNESCO statements can be found in United Nations Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organization, Four Statements on the Race Question, (France: Obertbur-Rennes, 1969), accessed at The quoted material comes from pp. 50-51. For a more contemporary explanation of the scientific agreements about race see, Vivian Chou, “How Science and Genetics are Reshaping the Race Debate of the 21st Century,” Science in the News, blog from Harvard University, The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, (17 Apr 2017), accessed at
  5. See pg. 413 in Patricia Mccann-mortimer, Martha Augoustinos, and Amanda Lecouteur, “‘Race’ and the Human Genome Project: Constructions of Scientific Legitimacy,” Discourse & Society, vol. 15, no. 4 (July 1, 2004): 409–432; see also, pg. 217 in Hussein Mohsen, “Race and Genetics: Somber History, Troubled Present,” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, vol. 93 (2020), pp. 215-219. 
  6. Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States, 3rd edition, (New York and London: Routledge, 1986/2015), p. 106. 
  7. To read a definitive account of White racial formations in the U.S. see Matthew Frye Jacobson, Whiteness Of A Different Color:  European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998); see also, David Roediger, Working Toward Whiteness: How American’s Immigrants Became White, The Strange Journey From Ellis Island to the Suburbs, (New York: Basic Books, 2005/2018); to learn about the Irish-White racial formation, see also Noel Ignatiev, How The Irish Became White, (New York: Routledge, 1995/2009); for an excellent history of White people, see Nell Irvin Painter, The History of White People, (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010). 
  8. Omi and Winant (2015), p. 109, emphasis in original.
  9. Omi and Winant (2015), pp. 110-111, emphasis in original. 
  10. The Atwater interview is available in Rick Perlstein, “Exclusive: Lee Atwater’s Infamous 1981 Interview on the Southern Strategy,” The Nation (13 Nov 2012), accessed at A version can also be found in Robin DiAngelo, White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard For White People to Talk About Race, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2018), p. 33.
  11. You can read about the theory and history of Orientalism in Edward Said, Orientalism, (New York: Vintage Books, 1978/1994).
  12. To read more about interpellation, see Louis Althusser, “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,” in Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, (Monthly Review Press, 1971), Ben Brewster (Trans), accessed at 
  13.  Ivan Hannaford, Race: The History of an Idea in the West, (Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996), p. 5. 
  14. David Theo Goldberg, Racist Culture: Philosophy And The Politics Of Meaning, (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1993), p. 62; Michael Banton, Racial Theories (2nd ed.),  (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 17. 
  15. William Dunbar, William Dunbar: The Complete Works, John Conlee, (Ed.), (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2004), accessed at 
  16. Vic Satzewich, “Race, Racism, and Racialization: Contested Concepts,” In Satzewich (Ed.), Racism and Social Inequality in Canada: Concepts, Controversies, and Strategies of Resistance. (Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishers, 1998), (pp. 25-46), pp. 27.
  17. William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, (V.i. 2526-2530), Open Source Shakespeare, accessed at
  18. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, (Andrew Crooke, at the Green Dragon in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1651). Project Gutenberg Ebook, 2013, accessed at For a summary of Hobbes' argument, see Hannaford (1996), pp. 192-194.
  19. This sentiment has been around for a long time in Western societies, well before Hobbes. It can be traced back to the ancient Greeks in Homer (circa 9th or 12th century BCE), Hesiod (circa 7th or 8th century BCE), and Thucydides (circa 460-400 BCE).
  20. Consider the British empire during about 1700 until today. It has had 15 African, 13 American, 5 Asian and South East Asian, and 8 Middle Eastern colonies (possessions). This doesn’t include their dominions, such as New Zealand, Australia, and Canada.
  21. Hannaford (1996), p. 195. Also see, John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Volume 2, (London: Eliz. Holt, for Thomas Basset, at the George in Fleet Street, near St. Dunstan’s Church, 1689). Project Gutenberg Ebook, 2018, accessed at
  22. To read more about travel literature and narratives, see Faraz Anjum, “Travel Writing, History and Colonialism: An Analytical Study,” Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, vol. 51, no. 2, (Jul-Dec 2014), pp. 191-205; Elizabeth Zold, “Discomforting Narratives: Teaching Eighteenth-Century Women’s Travelogues,” ABO: Interactive Journal for Women in the Arts, 1640-1830, vol. 4, no. 2, (Fall 2014), pp. 1-15; Richard E. Strassberg, translator, annotations, & introduction, Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writing from Imperial China, (Berkeley: University of California Press,  1994), accessed at 
  23. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Baconian Method,” Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 17 April 2020), accessed at
  24. Jonathan Barnes, Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982/1996/2000), pgs. 116-117.
  25. For instance, in Book I of Rhetoric, Aristotle not only categorizes rhetoric into modes (i.e. ethos, pathos, and logos) and kinds (i.e. deliberative, forensic, and epideictic), but also classifies governments into types (i.e. democracy, oligarchy, aristocracy, and monarchy). In Book II, he distinguishes emotions in audiences (e.g. calmness, Friendship and amnity, pity, envy, etc.), lines of argumentation, and, of course, the use of enthymemes from maxims (i.e. induction from deduction). In Book I of Politics, Aristotle organizes and defines the state and provides a justification for its “nature” through a teleological and inductive method as well. In Book III, he defines citizenship and makes inherent distinctions between citizens and “foreigners and slaves,” as well as types of kingship. See Aristotle, The Politics. Trans. T. A. Sinclair. Revised and Re-Presented by Trevor J. Saunders, (London: Penguin, 1992); Aristotle, The Rhetoric and Poetics of Aristotle. Trans. Rhys Roberts, (New York: Modern Library, McGraw-Hill, 1984).
  26. See pg. 4 of Siep Stuurman, “François Bernier and the Invention of Racial Classification,” History Workshop Journal, No. 50 (Autumn, 2000), pp. 1-21. 
  27. See pg. 44 in Jana Evans, “Genre, race, erasure: a genealogical critique of ‘American’ autobiography,” In Joseph A. Young and Jana Evans Braziel (eds.). Erasing Public Memory: Race, Aesthetics, and Cultural Amnesia in the Americas, (Mercer University Press, 2007), pp. 35–70; see also pg. 35 Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, (W.W. Norton & Company, 1981), p. 35; See also pg. 13 of Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader, (Blackwell, 1997), p. 13.
  28. Evans (2007), p. 44.
  29. To read more about Buffon’s categories and understanding of race, see Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, “The Geographical and Cultural Distribution of Mankind,” in Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze (ed.), Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader, (Blackwell, 1997), pp. 15-28; Hannaford (1996), pgs. 204-205; Sandra Knapp, “Comte de Buffon: A Grand Theorist,” in Robert Huxley (ed.), The Great Naturalists, (Thames and Hudson, 2007). pp. 140–148.
  30. To read more about Buffon’s contributions to evolutionary theory and Darwinism, see Roberta L. Millstein, "Evolution," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2019 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), accessed at
  31. To learn more about Blumenbach’s evolving terms that eventually get translated from Latin to English as “race,” and the differences between many early race pseudo-scientists, see Douglas Bronwen, “Climate to Crania: Science and the Racialization of Human Difference,” in Douglas Bronwen and Chris Ballard (eds.), Foreign Bodies: Oceania and the Science of Race 1750–1940, (Canabara, Australian National University Press, 2008), pp. 33-96.
  32. Hannaford (1996), pgs. 207-208.
  33. Eze (1997), pg. 83.
  34. Hannaford (1996), pg. 211.
  35. In his text, Blumenbach’s figure offers the following caption: “Five very select skulls from my collection, to demonstrate the equivalent number of the principal varieties of mankind: 1. Tungun [Mongolian]; 2. Caribbean [American]; 3. young female Georgian [Caucasian]; 4. Tahitian [Malay]; 5. Ethiopian of Guinea [Ethiopian]”; see Johann Freidrich Blumenbach, De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa, 3rd edition (Gottingae: Vandenhoek et Ruprecht, 1795), pp. 324-6; plate 2; see also, Bronwen (2008), pg. 38.
  36. Eze (1997), pg. 86.
  37. One can find references to Circassian beauties as far back as the Late Middle Ages (1250 to 1500 CE) since the area was key in trade routes, and later by Voltaire (Letters on the English, 1734), Henry Fielding (Tom Jones, 1749), Lord Byron, (Don Juan, 1818–24), and many later artworks categorized as Orientalism by artists like Giulio Rosati, Eugène Delacroix, Léon Cogniet, and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.
  38. Phrenology was the study of bumps and contours of the skull that was said to explain mental and intellectual traits and capacities. It was first popularized by German physician Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828), and used for racist conclusions about many different people. While the study and use of phrenology continued into the 20th century, by the mid-1800s, phrenology was mostly debunked. There was too much evidence against it. See, Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopedia of Medical History, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985), pg. 260.
  39. See Chapter 4, “The Spectacle of the ‘Other’” in Stuart Hall, Jessica Evans, and Sean Nixon, Representation (Open University Press, 1997/2013), pgs. 215-287.
  40. "Negro, n. and adj.". OED Online. June 2020. Oxford University Press. (accessed August 27, 2020). See also, Hannaford (1996), pg. 210; and Thatcher, Oliver. "Vasco da Gama: Round Africa to India, 1497-1498 CE". Modern History Sourcebook, (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co.), accessed at; see also contributors, “Negro (the word) a breif history,” African American Registry, (2020), accessed at
  41. Kwame Nantambu, “Origin of terms 'Negro' and Afrika,”, (09 Jan 2007), accessed at; see also, Richard B. Moore, The Name “Negro”: Its Origin and Evil Use, (Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1960/1992).
  42. Ibram X. Kendi, Stamped From The Beginning: A Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America, (New York: Nation Books, 2015), pgs. 80-81.
  43. Samuel H. Williamson and Louis Cain, "Measuring Slavery in 2016 dollars," MeasuringWorth, 2020, Accessed at
  44.  See Dora Mekouar, “Here Are the 10 Richest US Presidents of All Time,” (08 Jul 2019), accessed at
  45. Thomas Jefferson, et al, Declaration of Independence, (4 Jul 1776), accessed at 
  46. To read more on the economics of the South, see Greg Timmons, “How Slavery Became the Economic Engine of the South,”, (6 Mar 2018/02 Sep 2020), accessed at
  47.  This euphemism, “no skin off my back,” might also be tied to slavery through the practice of flogging as a punishment; however, the practice was in place on sailing ships for quite some time before that. See, Michael G. Williams, “Where'd that phrase come from?” Erickson Living Tribune, (07 Aug 2014), accessed at
  48. Sigmund Freud believed that to interpret the meaning and significance of dreams, one needed to account for multiple separate factors in the life of the dreamer. Accounting for multiple, overlapping factors for the same features in a dream would help explain the dream’s meaning. See Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, A. A. Brill (Trans.), (London & New York: MacMillan and Company, 1899/1922).
  49. Ralph Clayton, “E. A. Poe, dealer in slaves,” Baltimore Sun, (01 Oct 1993), accessed at
  50. Clayton (1993), np. Clayton attributes to Poe the following: “Nothing is wanting but manly discussion to convince our own people at least, that in continuing to command the services of their slaves, they violate no law, divine or human, and that in the faithful discharge of their reciprocal obligations lies their true duty.”
  51. To read about John Allan, see “John Allan,” People page, The Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore, (27 Jan 2019), accessed at
  52. The estate of Glenarvon has a website with documents that show the accounting of William Galt’s estate at his death. See
  53. To read about the tacit influence of slavery on some of Poe’s other writings, see, Rene Van Slooten, “Edgar Allan Poe and the Fall of the House: The Tale of the Announced American Apocalypse,” Baltimore Post-Examiner, (04 Jun 2014), accessed at See also, Teresa Goddu, Gothic America: Narrative, History, and Nation (New Columbia Univ. Pres, 1997);  Betsy Erkkila, “The Poetics of Whiteness: Poe and the Racial Imaginary,” in Kennedy and Weissberg (eds.), Romancing the Shadow, (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001).
  54. See chapter 12, “Colonization,” of Kendi (2016).
  55. editors, “Liberian independence proclaimed,” This Day in History: July 26,, (updated 24 Jul 2020), accessed at; for a good set of primary resources and history on African American colonization and the American Colonization Society, see, contributors, “Colonization,” The African-American Mosaic, The Library of Congress, (nd), accessed at
  56. Edgar Allen Poe, “The Raven,”, (1849), accessed at
  57. For a brief history with illustrations and sources of the historical publication details of Stowe’s novel, see, Michael Winship, “Uncle Tom's Cabin: History of the Book in the 19th-Century United States,” website, (2007), accessed at
  58. United States, “The Fugitive slave law. [Hartford, Ct.? : s.n., 185-?], Broadside, Hartford, Ct., Library of Congress, (1850), accessed at; editors, “Fugitive Slave Acts,”, (updated 11 Feb 2020), accessed at; see also, contributors, “The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850,” lesson for U.S. History, Common Core, Constitutional Rights Foundation, BRIA 34:2 (Winter 2019), accessed at
  59. Evan Hill, Ainara Tiefenthäler, Christiaan Triebert, Drew Jordan, Haley Willis, and Robin Stein, “How George Floyd Was Killed in Police Custody,” The New York Times, (updated 13 Aug 2020).
  60. Derald Wing Sue, Race Talk And The Conspiracy of Silence: Understanding and Facilitating Difficult Dialogues on Race, (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2015), pg. 90.
  61. Heike Bauer, The Hirschfeld Archives: Violence, Death, and Modern Queer Culture, (Philadelpha: Temple Univesity Press, 2017), pgs. 14-15, accessed at See also, Magnus Hirschfeld, Racism, (Trans. and Ed. by Eden and Cedar Paul), (Blackpool: London Publications Ltd, April 22, 1938).
  62. See Joe Feagin and Sean Elias, “Rethinking Racial Formation Theory: A Systemic Racism Critique,” Ethnic And Racial Studies, vol. 36, no. 6 (2013), pg. 943 (emphasis in original); see also Omi and Winant (2015), pgs. 127-128. Omi and Winant (2015) have a brief discussion of Hirschfeld’s book on pages 127-128. 
  63. To read about the pervasive, de jure settler colonial violence and genocide perpetrated by the U.S. government and citizens against all indigenous peoples in North America, see, Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2014). 
  64. Jacobson (1998), pg. 55; David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness, Revised Edition, (London & New York: Verso, 2002/1991), pg. 146.
  65. My apologies for the use of the N-word here. I don’t use the word lightly or flippantly. It is not my practice to reproduce this word, unless I need to be clear about the reference and its rhetorical impact, or if I’m reproducing a quote with the word in it. This word was also applied to early Italian immigrants, see Jacobson (1998), pg. 57. 
  66. Ignatiev (1995), see also, Jacobson (1998), pg. 95.
  67. “Raven’s Home” is a 2017- present Disney sitcom spinoff of “That’s So Raven” that aired from 2003-2007. Raven is the lead character, a supernatural, psychic Black girl, turned mother in the newer sitcom.
  68. Goldberg (1993), pgs. 41-42.
  69. Said (1978/1994), pgs. 202-203.
  70. The names of the eight victims of the March 16, 2021, Atlanta, Georgia shooting were: Delaina Ashley Yaun Gonzalez, Paul Andre Michels, Xiaojie Tan, Daoyou Feng, Hyun Jung Grant, Soon Chung Park, Suncha Kim,  and Yong Ae Yue. 
  71. Yam, Kimmy, “There were 3,800 anti-Asian racist incidents, mostly against women, in past year,” NBC News, (16 Mar 2021), accessed at  
  72. Haynes, Suyin, “‘This Isn't Just a Problem for North America.' The Atlanta Shooting Highlights the Painful Reality of Rising Anti-Asian Violence Around the World,” Time, (22 Mar 2021), accessed at 
  73. For some Asian American history, see, Erika Lee, The Making of Asian America: A History, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015); Ronald Takkai, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, (New York: Little, Brown & Company, 1993), pp. 192-221; Robert G. Lee, Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999).
  74. To read a few brief accounts of anti-Asian racism in the U.S., see, Bruce Janu, “Yes, “Kung Flu” is very racist. And there is a history,” Medium, (24 Jun 2020), accessed at; Machelle Walfred, Illustrating Chinese Exclusion, blog, (2014), accessed at 
  75. To read about Fu Manchu and the “Yellow Peril” in the U.S., see, Robert G. Lee (1999), pp. 113-117. For an interesting account of the way Dr. Fu Manchu was represented in a more ambiguous way, see, Phil Baker, “Fu Manchu and China: Was the 'yellow peril incarnate' really appallingly racist?” Independent, (20 Oct 2015), accessed at
  76. To read about the history of the “Yellow Peril” idea, see Robert G. Lee (1999), pgs. 106-144; Eugene Franklyn Wong, “The Early Years: Asians in American Films Prior to WWII,” in Screening Asian Americans, Peter X. Feng (ed.), (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2002), pgs. 53-70; for a deeper history, see, Gina Marchetti, Romance and the “Yellow Peril”: Race, Sex, and Discoursive Strategies in Hollywood Fiction, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
  77. Said (1978/1994), pg. 40.
  78. Said (1978/1994), pgs. 245-246.
  79. To read about the “magical Negro” chacter, see Marvin Jones, Race, Sex, and Suspicion: The Myth of the Black Male, (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2005), pgs. 15-40; Matt Zoller Seitz, “The offensive movie cliche that won't die,” Salon, (14 Sep 2010), accessed at; Rita Kempley, “Movies’ ‘Magic Negro’ Saves the Day -- But at The Cost of His Soul” (reprinted), The Black Commentator, (3 Jul 2003), accessed at; Nnedi Okorafor-Mbachu, “Stephen King's Super-Duper Magical Negroes,” Strange Horizons, (25 Oct 2004), accessed at You can find a list of mostly films with magical Negro occurances at  
  80. “What is Reasonable Suspicion?” Flex Your Rights (FLEX), Website, (nd.), accessed at 
  81. Terry v. Ohio, 392, US 1, (1968), accessed FindLaw, at
  82. Shelley S. Hyland, Ph.D., and Elizabeth Davis, “Local Police Departments, 2016: Personnel,” U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Oct 2019), pgs. 7-8, accessed at 
  83. To read about implicit biases, see, Mahzarin R. Banaji and Anthony G. Greenwald, Blind Spot: Hidden Biases of Good People, (New York: Bantan, 2016). You can also test your own implicit biases at their website, which has numerous tests of various implicit biases, at 
  84. “Understanding Implicit Bias,” Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity, the Ohio State University (2015), accessed at 
  85. Gordon F. Goodwin, and Sarah Lawton, “The Role of Libraries in Advancing Racial Equity,” presentation, WiLSWorld 2019, (24 Jul 2019), Madison, Wisconsin, accessed at 
  86. Banaji and Greenwald (2016), pgs. 149-165. 
  87. The nobel prize winning Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Princeton, Daniel Kahneman, explains many mind bugs, the ways our brains make “fast” thinking, which often lead to mistakes and errors in judgements and decisions. The mind bug I’m referring to is “What you see is all there is” or WYSIATI heuristic. See, Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011), 85-88.
  88. Stephon Clark, a 22 year old father and husband, was shot 20 times in his grandparents’ backyard in Sacramento, California on March 18, 2018 by the police. The police claimed they saw him holding a gun, which turned out to be a cell phone. See, Rhiannon Walker, “A timeline of Stephon Clark’s death at the hands of Sacramento police and the aftermath,” The Undefeated, (23 Mar 2018), accessed at 
  89. Goldberg (1993), pg. 46.
  90. To learn more about Asian U.S. history, see Takaki (1993). For a briefer account that centers on the way race has been integral to the building of the U.S. as an empire and nation, see Ronald Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th Century America, revised edition, (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1979/2000).
  91. Goldberg (1993), pg. 46.
  92. Goldberg (1993), pg. 47.
  93. Goldberg (1993), pg. 49.
  94. Kendi (2015), pg. 105.
  95.  “Public High School Graduation Rates,” National Center of Education Statistics, website, (May 2020), accessed at,were%20above%20the%20U.S.%20average. The graph shown comes from "Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States," NCES, website, (Apr 2021), accessed at
  96. To read a key text of Vico’s, see, Giambattista Vico, The First New Science, Leon Pompa (ed. & trans.), (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002/1725). 
  97. Protagoras’ “Human-Measure” fragment (formerly known as “Man-Measure”) is a good example of socially constructed knowledge in ancient Sophistic thought. The fragment is often translated as: “Of all things the measure is Man, of the things that are, that they are; and of the things that are not, that they are not.” Edward Schiappa, a scholar of Protagoras, offers this summing up of the fragment: “the two [the subjective and objective] are ‘bound,’ ‘things’ can be ‘measured’ by people in contrasting ways (logoi), and a dominant experience (logos) of a thing is potentially alterable as an interchange or swapping of opposites.” See Edward Schiappa, Protagoras and Logos: A Study in Greek Philosophy and Rhetoric, 2nd edition, (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2003), pp. 117-133.
  98. John D. Schaeffer, Sensus Communis: Vico, Rhetoric, and The Limits of Relativism, (Durham, NC & London: Duke University Press, 1990), pg. 81.
  99. Schaeffer (1990), pg. 81.
  100. Julie E. Maybee, "Hegel’s Dialectics", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2019 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), accessed at
  101. See Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, Race and The Enlightenment: A Reader, (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1997), pgs. 109-153; see also Kendi (2016), pgs. 147-148. 
  102. The Wikipedia citation and description of this political cartoon states: "A 1911 Industrial Worker (IWW newspaper) publication advocating industrial unionism that shows the critique of capitalism. It is based on a flyer of the "Union of Russian Socialists" spread in 1900 and 1901" 
  103. While one could read Karl Marx’s Das Kapital to learn more, it’s not easy reading. Penguin Books has a good three volume set of Capital, translated by Ernest Mandel. However, an easier explanation of the dialectic can be found here: David Fields, “The Productive Base as the Ground of Society and History: Marx’s Base-Superstructure Theory,” Radical Political Economy, Blog hub of the Union for Radical Political Economics, (28 Dec 2017), accessed at; see also Raymond Williams, Marxism and Literature, (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), pgs. 95-100.
  104. See sections XI-XIV of Antonio Gramsci, The Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings, 1916-1935, David Forgacs (ed.), (New York, New York University Press, 2000). 
  105. June Casagrande, The Joy of Syntax: A Simple Guide to All the Grammar You Know You Should Know, (California and New York; Ten Speed Press, 2018), p. 7.
  106. Williams (1977), pgs. 108-114.
  107. To read about the historical, institutional racism of the U.S. judicial system, see Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration In The Age of Colorblindness, (New York: The New Press, 2010/2012). You can read an excellent example one  antiracist way to teach To Kill A Mockingbird in the ELA classroom using Critical Race Theory in Carlin Borsheim-Black and Sophia Tatiana Sarigianides, Letting Go of Literary Whiteness: Antiracist Literature Instruction for White Students, (New York: Teachers College Press, 2019), pgs. 79-87. 
  108.  I’m referring to the likely tens of thousands of mostly White Pro-Trump rioters who broke into the U.S. Capital building on Wed, Jan 06, 2021 during the session where congress was certifying the electoral votes for president, confirming President-Elect Joe Biden and President Trump’s loss. Trump had consistently rejected and claimed election fraud, even inciting his followers to violence in rallies and tweets up to the day of the riots. See, Sabrina Tavernise and Matthew Rosenberg, “These Are the Rioters Who Stormed the Nation’s Capitol,” New York Times, (07 Jan 2021, updated 08 Jan 2021), accessed at; Lisa Mascaro and Matthew Daly, “Capitol siege by pro-Trump mob forces questions, ousters,” AP, (8 Jan 2021), accessed at For a visual guide of the riot, see, BBC Photojournalism Team, “Capitol riots: A visual guide to the storming of Congress,” BBC News, (7 Jan 2021), accessed at
  109. I’ve offered one way to teach antiracist reading in college and other classrooms. See Asao B. Inoue, “Teaching Antiracist Reading,” Journal of College Reading and Learning, 50:3, pp. 134-156. Accessible at
  110. I’m not suggesting that Lee’s novel is not a good novel, or that it doesn’t offer antiracist lessons. I’m saying if it is the main story about racism offered in the ELA classroom, then that classroom is not antiracist, and in fact, it’s likely doing racist work.
  111. Louis Althusser, “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,”  Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, Trans. Ben Brewster, (Monthly Review Press 1971; first published in La Pensée, 1970), accessed at 
  112. To read a discussion of the way subjects are embedded in English and writing teachers’ ways of judging student writing in the early and later twentieth century, see Lester Faigley, “Judging Writing, Judging Selves,” College Composition and Communication, vol. 40, no. 4 (Dec 1989), pp. 395-412.
  113. David Bartholomae, “Inventing the University,” The Journal of Basic Writing, vol. 5, no. 1 (Spr 1986), pp. 4-23.
  114. Geneva Smitherman, Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America, (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1977), pp. 6-7, 9. 
  115. Joshua Bajaras, “How newspapers reviewed ‘To Kill A Mockingbird’ in 1960,” PBS News Hour, (13 July 2015), accessed at; see also, Angela Levins, “What They Said about ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ 55 Years Ago,”, (10 Jul 2015/updated 06 Mar 2019), accessed at
  116. Isabel Wilkerson, “July 11, 1951: Cicero Riot Over Housing Desegregation,” The Zinn Education Project, (2021), accessed at; excerpted from Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration, (New York: Vintage Books, 2010). 
  117. To read about sundown towns in the U.S., see, James Loewen, Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism, (New York: Touchtone, 2005); to see lists of sundown towns in each state, see Matt Cheney and Phil Huckelberry, “Sundown Towns in the United States,” (1997-2020), accessed at
  118. Veronica Glisson, “‘The Andy Griffith Show’ Has Only 1 Black Speaking Character in All 248 Episodes,” Showbiz Cheatsheet, (2 Nov 2020), accessed at 
  119. The book that won the Pulitzer for General Nonfiction in 2015 was Elizabeth Kolbert’s The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, (New York: Picador, 2014). In 2016, the year Coates’ book was nominated, Joby Warrick’s Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS (New York: Anchor, 2015) won. Both were White authors.
  120. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2019). Digest of Education Statistics, 2018 (NCES 2020-009), Table 226.10, accessed at; Bob Schaeffer, “2019 SAT Scores: Gaps Between Demographic Groups Grows Larger,” FairTest: The National Center for Fair and Open Testing, (24 Sep 2019), accessed at 
  121. Financial Samurai, “Mortgage Interest Rates By Race: The Differences Are Significant,” Financial Samurai Website, (2009-2020), accessed at; Drew Desilver and Kristen Bialik, “Blacks and Hispanics face extra challenges in getting home loans,” Fact Tank, News in the Numbers, Pew Research Center, (10 Jan 2017), accessed at 
  122. To read in detail about the college gaps between White, Black, and Latine students, see, CJ Labassi, “The Neglected College Race Gap: Racial Disparities Among College Completers,” The Center for American Progress, (23 May 2018), accessed at 
  123. Philip Slater, The Pursuit of Loneliness: American Culture at the Breaking Point, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1970), pg. 15.
  124. Lester Faigley, Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject of Composition, Pittsburgh & London: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992), pg. 113.
  125. In classical Marxism, alienation happens to people  in a number of ways, but perhaps the most important are the ways that Capitalist modes of production separate (or alienate) the worker from their own life, human nature, and a sense of who they are in the world. This happens by taking away control of the products of one’s labors and work. For instance, being a worker on an assembly line or in a cubicle, isolated or separated from the products that the worker helps produce, hides the worker’s own relations to whatever they are producing. They simply work for a wage. Alienation is linked to “commodity fetishism,” a phenomenon that makes people see, understand, and act in ways that make commodities in the marketplace (clothes, shoes, cell phones, etc.) take on almost supernatural-like powers, or influence over behaviors. What becomes important is to buy or have the new commodity, whatever it is, and somehow it is understood to create fulfilment and perhaps self-actualization. Actual control over one’s life an daily work is substituted for desires to buy or acquire commodities. To read more about alienation and commodity fetishism, see the Marxist Internet Archive’s index on this topic at 
  126. The French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan theorized the idea of jouissance as a way to counter or nuance Freudian ideas of “the pleasure principle.” Jouissance is often defined as more than enjoyment, and enjoyment beyond the pleasure principle. In his lectures, Lacan describes jouissance a variety of ways, as “backhanded enjoyment” (Seminar X, 23rd January 1963), “superabundant vitality” (Seminar VII, 18th May 1960), and in a metaphor, one that“begins with a tickle and ends with blaze of petrol” (Seminar XVII, p.72). To read more, see Owen Hewitson, “What Does Lacan Say About… Jouissance?”, (3 Jul 2015), accessed at
  127. Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between The World and Me, (New York: Spiegel and Grau, 2015), 6-7.
  128. Ibram X. Kendi, How To Be An Antiracist, (New York: One World, 2019), pg. 9.
  129. Image from contributors, "How to Be Anti-Racist: A Social Worker's Perspective," blog post from the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work Blog, (28 Oct 2020), accessed at  
  130. For the term “whitely” and “whiteliness,” I draw on Marilyn Frye’s, “White Woman Feminist,” in Willful Virgin: Essays in Feminism (The Crossing Press, 1992), accessed at Frye draws on several scholars of color to understand the term and set of behaviors: Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua (eds.), This Bridge Called My Back: Writing By Radical Women of Color, (Brooklyn, NY: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1981); bell hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (Boston: South End Press, 1985); John Langston Gewaltney, Drylongso: A Self-Portrait of Black America (NY: Random House, 1983).
  131. Lee Atwater perfected the “Southern strategy” for political rhetoric. It’s goals were to maintain White supremacy by not explicitly talking about race in political discourse. Atwater was the political strategist for Ronald Regan and George H.W. Bush. See Rick Perlstein, “Exclusive: Lee Atwater’s Infamous 1981 Interview on the Southern Strategy,” The Nation (13 Nov 2012), accessed at 
  132. James Paul Gee,  “Literacy, Discourse, and Linguistics: Introduction.” Journal of Education, vol. 171, no. 1, (1989), pgs. 6-7.
  133. Robin Wall Kimmerer, Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants, (Minneapolis: Milkweed, 2013), p. 50.
  134. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva conducted a study that looked at how White people talk about race and racism, and the language they use to convince themselves that racism isn’t their problem, or doesn’t exist anymore. See, Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America, 5th ed., (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2018).
  135. Harry Gensler, Ethics and the Golden Rule, (New York and London: Routledge, 2013), pg. 1.
  136. Contributors, “Read, Affirm, and Share the Charter,” Charter for Compassion, website, (2020), accessed at To watch Karen Armstrong’s 2008 TED Talk, see,
  137. Contributors, “Declaration of a Global Ethic,” Religious Tolerance, website, (n.d.), accessed at; see also, Joel Beversluis, A SourceBook for Earth's Community of Religions, (Grand Rapids: CoNexus Press; New York: Global Educational Associates, 1995), pgs. 131 - 138.
  138. Brian Arao and Kristi Clemens, “From Safe Spaces to Brave Spaces: A New Way to Frame Dialogue Around Diversity and Social Justice,” in Lisa M. Landreman (ed.), The Art of Effective Facilitation: Reflections From Social Justice Educators, (Sterling, VA: Sylus, 2013), pgs. 135-150.
  139. Derald Wing Sue, Race Talk and The Conspiracy of Silence: Understanding and Facilitating Difficult Dialogues on Race, (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2015), pp. 186-244.
  140. Of DiAngelo (2018) and Bonilla-Silva (2018), the first is more directly usable in literacy classrooms with students. It will be a hard text to read with students. The author offers valuable ways to understand how White people tend to feel about race, why it’s hard to talk about it without feeling defensive, and guidelines for how to have such discussions. Her guidelines agree with the ones I’m offering in this chapter. In essence, DiAngelo is asking her White readers to be brave. 
  141. Sue (2015), pg. 242.
  142. John Baugh, “Linguistic Profiling,” in Sinfree Makoni, Geneva Smitherman, Arnetha F. Ball, and Arthur K. Spears (eds.), Black Linguistics: Language, society, and politics in Africa and the Americas, (London & New York: Routledge, 2003). See also, Patricia Rice, “Linguistic profiling: The sound of your voice may determine if you get that apartment or not,” Newsroom from Washington University in St. Louis, website, (02 Feb 2006), accessed at 
  143. Jordan Pearson, “It’s Our Fault That AI Thinks White Names Are More 'Pleasant' Than Black Names,” Vice, (26 Aug 2016), accessed at; see also, Ruha Benjamin, Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code, (Medford, MA: Polity, 2019), pp. 95-96.
  144. For national statistics on who teaches in U.S. elementary and secondary schools, see, A. W. Geiger, “America’s public school teachers are far less racially and ethnically diverse than their students,” Fact Tank, Pew Research Center, (27 Aug 2018), accessed at; contributors, “Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups,” National Center for Educational Statistics, (Feb 2019), accessed at
  145. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2020). The Condition of Education 2020 (NCES 2020-144), Characteristics of Postsecondary Faculty, accessed at
  146. See, The Open Syllabus Explorer, website (2020), accessed at 
  147. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), “Fall Enrollment in Colleges and Universities” surveys, 1976 and 1980; Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), "Fall Enrollment Survey" (IPEDS-EF:90); and IPEDS Spring 2001 through Spring 2019, Fall Enrollment component, accessed at 
  148. Laura Jimenez, Scott Sargrad, Jessica Morales, and Maggie Thompson, Remedial Education: The Cost of Catching Up, Report from Center for American Progress, (Washington D.C.: Center for American Progress, Sep 2016), accessed at
  149. To read about racial restrictive covenants, see, “What are Covenants,” Mapping Prejudice, University of Minnesota Libraries, (2020), accessed at
  150. To read about the ways Black veterans were denied the GI Bill, see, Erin Blakemore, “How the GI Bill's Promise Was Denied to a Million Black WWII Veterans,”, (30 Sep 2019), accessed at; Peter C. Baker, “The Tragic, Forgotten History of Black Military Veterans,” The New Yorker, (27 Nov 2016), accessed at 
  151. See, “Our Documents - Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (1944),” website, the National Archives, accessed at
  152. To read about the redlining, see, Richard Rothstein, The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2017); to see a comprehensive set of redlining maps used, see, Mapping Inequality: Redlining in New Deal America, (n.d.), website, accessed at
  153. See chapters 1 and 2 of Catherine Prendergast, Literacy and Racial Justice: The Politics of Learning After Brown v. Board of Education, (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2003).
  154. Prendergast (2003), pg. 41.
  155. Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color: The Threat Against White World Supremacy, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1921), accessed at, pg. 226.
  156. Stoddard (1921), pg. 233.
  157. Stoddard (1921), pg. 236.
  158. Stoddard (1921), pgs. 266-267.
  159. To read a history of early grading in U.S. colleges, see, Mary Lovett Smallwood, An Historical Study of Examinations and Grading Systems in Early American Universities : a Critical Study of the Original Records of Harvard, William and Mary, Yale, Mount Holyoke, and Michigan from Their Founding to 1900, (Johnson Reprint Corp., 1935/1969). See also the introduction and chapter 1 from David Bleich, “What Can Be Done About Grading?” in Libby Allison, Lizbeth Bryant, and Maureen Hourigan (eds.), Grading in the Post-Process Classroom: From Theory to Practice, (Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1997), pgs. 1-12; 15-35. See also, Richard Boyd, “The Origins and Evolution of Grading Student Writing: Pedagogical Imperatives and Cultural Anxieties,” in Frances Zac and Christopher C. Weaver (eds.), The Theory and Practice of Grading Writing: Problems and Possibilities, (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998), pgs. 3-16.
  160. Daniel Starch and Edward C. Elliott, “Reliability of the Grading of High-School Work in English,” The School Review, vol. 20, no. 7 (Sep 1912), pgs. 442-457; Thorndike, Edward L. “A Scale for Merit in English Writing by Young People.” Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 2, no. 7, Warwick & York, (Sep 1911), pp. 361–68; Franklin W. Johnson. “The Hillegas-Thorndike Scale for Measurement of Quality in English Composition by Young People.” School Review, vol. 21, no. 1, The University of Chicago Press, (Jan 1913), pp. 39–49.
  161. Starch and Elliott (1912), pg. 442.
  162. Thorndike (1911), pg. 361.
  163. In its simplest terms, a reliability coefficient is a numeric or quantified way to describe the consistency of a measure. It is usually computed by taking two measures of the same thing (say an essay that is holistically scored twice), then comparing the two scores. There are a number of ways to calculate a coefficient, but the number is usually between -1 and 1.
  164. For a nice introduction to the “linguistic facts of life,” see chapter 1 in Rosina Lippi-Green, English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States, 2nd ed., (London & New York: Routledge, 2012); see also, Laura Greenfield, “The ‘Standard English’ Fairy Tale: A Rhetorical Analysis of Racist Pedagogies and Commonplace Assumptions about Language Diversity,” in Laura Greenfield and Karen Rowan (eds.), Writing Centers and the New Racism: A Call for Sustainable Dialogue and Change, (Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2011), pp. 33-60.
  165. Lippi-Green (2012), pp. 6-7.
  166. Lippi-Green (2012), pp. 56-57, 68.
  167. Lippi-Green (2012), p. 67.
  168. Smitherman (1977), pp. 191, 193.
  169. Smitherman (1981), p. 195. 
  170. Smitherman (1981), p. 195-196.
  171. Smitherman (1981), p. 196.
  172. Smitherman (1981), p. 171; Fanon’s quote comes from Franz Fanon, “The Black Man and Language,” Black Skin, White Masks, Richard Philcox, trans., (New York: Grove Press, 1952/2008).
  173. Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1981), pg. 24.
  174. To read more about the archaic psychological classifications of “morons,” “imbeciles,” and “idiots,” see, contributors, “The Clinical History of 'Moron,' 'Idiot,' and 'Imbecile': The words have a less-than-savory past,”, (2020), accessed at; Joella Straley, “It Took A Eugenicist To Come Up With 'Moron,'” NPR, Code-Switch podcast, (10 Feb 2014), accessed at To read an earlier conception of the terms’ uses, see, Edger. A. Doll, “Idiot, Imbecile, and Moron.” Journal of applied psychology, vol. 20, no. 4, (1936), pp. 427–437.
  175. To read more of Marshall’s grading systems, see, Max S. Marshall, “The Flotation Technique: Teaching without Grades,” Improving College and University Teaching, vol. 8, no. 1 (Winter 1960), pp. 23-29; Max S. Marshall, Teaching Without Grades, (Corvallis, Oregon State University Press, 1968).
  176. Gene Currivan, “High Schools Urge to Abolish Grading, SCHOOLS ADVISED TO END GRADING,” New York Times, (9 Dec. 1964), pg. 1. 
  177. In my view, Kohn offers some of the best arguments against grading as a practice. He does not engage with the racism of grading however. See, Kohn, Alfie. Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A’s, Praise, and Other Bribes, (New York, N.Y: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1993); Alfie Kohn, “The Case Against Grades,” Educational Leadership (Nov 2011), reproduced and extended on Alfie Kohn’s website, accessed at
  178. A notable study was done by John French, Sydell Carlton, and Paul Diederich of ETS in 1961. It was reported in Paul Diederich, Measuring Growth in English, (Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1974).
  179. F. Allan Hanson, Testing Testing: Social Consequences of the Examined Life, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), pg. 284.
  180. Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1981); Norbert Elliot, On a Scale: A Social History of Writing Assessment in America, (New York: Peter Lang, 2005); Smallwood (1935/1969); Angela Saini, Superior: The Return of Race Science, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2019).
  181. Among her numerous books on the subject, see, Geneva Smitherman, Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America, (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1977); Geneva Smitherman, Word from the Mother: Language and African Americans, (New York: Routledge, 2006).
  182. I realize I’m mixing ethic groupings with racial groupings here. Blackness and Whiteness are the most monolithic, even as they both encompass a diverse group of people and languages. Latine groups also are diverse. We can say the same for Asian groups.
  183. See Tema Okun, “(divorcing) WHITE SUPREMACY CULTURE: Coming Home to Who We Really Are,” White Supremacy Culture website, accessed at (2021). You can find a list and descriptions of the characteristics of white supremacy culture at: 
  184. I have offered versions of these habits in previous publications: Asao B. Inoue, Labor-Based Grading Contracts: Building Equity and Inclusion in the Compassionate Writing Classroom, (Fort Collins and Louisville, CO: WAC Clearinghouse and University Press of Colorado, 2019), pgs. 27, 278-279; Asao B. Inoue, “Classroom Writing Assessment as an Antiracist Practice: Confronting White Supremacy in the Judgments of Language,” Pedagogy, vol. 9, no. 3, (Oct 2019), pgs. 399-400. The most recent version that is very close to this one is in chapter 0 of Asao B. Inoue, Above the Well: An Antiracist Literacy Argument from a Boy of Color, (WAC Clearinghouse and University Press of Colorado, 2021).
  185. See, Tammie M. Kennedy, Joyce Irene Middleton, and Krista Ratcliffe (eds.), Rhetorics of Whiteness: Postracial Hauntings in Popular Culture, Social Media, and Education, (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2017), pgs. 4-7.
  186. A COIK orientation often operates from ambiguous or floating key terms and ideas. For example, in the statement, “Americans are a free people,” the term “free” floats. It can mean a number of things depending on who you are. COIK orientations leave key ideas or terms floating but assume a universal understanding of them. To read about “floating signifiers,” see, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Introduction to the Work of Marcel Mauss, Felicity Baker (Trans.), (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987/1950), pgs. 63-64; Jonathan Matthew Smucker, Andrew Boyd, and Dave Oswald Mitchell, “Floating Signifier,” Beautiful Trouble, website textbook, (n.d.), accessed at
  187. I draw on Sara Ahmed, “A Phenomenology of Whiteness,” Feminist Theory, vol.8, no.2, (2007), pgs. 149-168; Robin DiAngelo, White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard For White People to Talk about Racism. (Boston: Beacon Press, 2018).
  188. For this habit, I draw on, Richard Brookhiser, “The Way of the WASP,” in Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic (eds.), Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror, (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1997), pgs. 16-23; Catherine Myser, “Differences From Somewhere: The Normativity of Whiteness in Bioethics in The United States.” The American Journal of Bioethics, vol.3, no.2, (2003), pgs. 1-11; David McGill, and John K. Pearce. (1982). “British Families,” in Monica McGoldrick, Joe Giordano, and Nydia Garcia-Preto (eds.), Ethnicity and Family Therapy, (Guildford Press, 1982), pgs. 457-479; DiAngelo (2018).
  189. I draw on Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992); bell hooks, “Representing Whiteness in the Black Imagination,” in Ruth Frankenberg (ed.), Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism, (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997), pgs. 338-346; Timothy Barnett, “Reading ‘Whiteness’ in English studies,” College English, vol.63, no.1, (2000), pgs. 9-37; Marilyn Frye, “White Woman Feminist.” Willful Virgin: Essays on Feminism, (The Crossing Press, 1992); Donna Haraway, “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective,” Feminist Studies, vol. 14, no. 3, (Fall 1988), pgs. 575-599; Myser (2003).
  190. I draw on Brookhiser (1997); Barnett (2000); Haraway (1988); Myser (2003); DiAngelo (2018).
  191. I draw on David Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, revised edition, (London and New York: Verso, 1991/1999); George Lipsitz, The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998); Myser (2003); Frye (1992).
  192. I draw on hooks (1997); Brookhiser (1997); Myser (2003); Barnett (2000).
  193. To see the CCSS, see them for all grades and subjects at I’ve taken all the wording of the CCSS from this informational site. 
  194. “High School Required Reading Books,”, website, (accessed on 11 Sep 2012), accessed at
  195. Daniel Kahneman, Thinking: Fast and Slow, (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011).
  196. Casey Cep, “The Contested Legacy of Atticus Finch,” New Yorker, (10 Dec 2018), accessed at
  197. To learn more about A.C. Lee, see, Joseph Crespino, Atticus Finch: The Biography, (Basic Books, 2018).
  198. Multiple contributors, “Sharing Stories,” African American Lives 2, Website. (Educational Broadcasting Service, 2008), accessed at 
  199. Nicholas N. Behm, Gregory R. Glau, Deborah H. Holdstein, Duane Roen, and Edward M. White, The WPA Outcomes Statement: A Decade Later, (Anderson, SC: Parlor Press, 2013), p. iv.
  200. Marilyn Frye, “White Woman Feminist,” in Willful Virgins: Essays in Feminism, (The Crossing Press, 1992), pp. 153-54, accessed at These dispositions are also found in Catherine Fox, “The Race to Truth: Disarticulating Critical Thinking from Whiteliness,” Pedagogy: Critical Approaches to Teaching, Literature, Language, Composition, and Culture, vol. 2, no. 2, (2002), pg. 202. Frye cites the following: chapters by Barbara Cameron, Chrystos, Doris Davenport, and Mitsuye Yamada in Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua (eds.), This Bridge Called My Back: Writing By Radical Women of Color (Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1981); bell hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (South End Press, 1985); John Langston Gewaltney, Drylongso: A Self-Portrait of Black America (Random House, 1983); Minnie Bruce Pratt, “Identity: Skin Blood Heart,” in Elly Bulkin, Minnie Bruce Pratt, and Barbara Smith (eds.),  Yours in Struggle, (Long Haul Press, 1984).
  201. Catherine Prendergast, “Race: The Absent Presence in Composition Studies,” College Composition and Communication, vol. 50, no. 1, (Sep 1998), p. 36.
  202. There are several histories and accounts of the development of the WPA Outcomes Statement, including the key people involved. You can find an account in Behm et al (2013). Another account is in Susanmarie Harrington, Keith Rhodes, Ruth Overman Fischer, and Rita Malenczyk, The Outcomes Book: Debate and Consensus After the WPA Outcomes Statement, (Utah State UP, 2005); another account is in Dylan B. Dryer, Darsie Bowden, Beth Brunk-Chavez, Susanmarie Harrington, Bump Halbritter, and Kathleen Blake Yancey, “Revising FYC Outcomes for a Multimodal, Digitally Composed World: The WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year Composition (Version 3.0),” WPA: Writing Program Administration, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Fall 2014), pp. 129-143.
  203. WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year Composition (v3.0), (adopted 17 July 2014), accessed at, pg. 1.
  204. Mark Wiley, “Outcomes Are Not Mandates For Standardization,” in Harrington et al, (2005), pg. 27.
  205. Wiley (2005), pg. 29.
  206. To learn more about principles of good assessment, see, CCCC Committee on Assessment, Writing Assessment: A Position Statement, (2006, revised 2009, reaffirmed 2014), accessed at; chapter 4 of Brian Huot, (Re)Articulating Writing Assessment for Teaching and Learning, (Utah State UP, 2002), accessible at; Asao B. Inoue and Mya Poe (eds.), Race and Writing Assessment, (Peter Lang, 2012). 
  207. Wiley, (2005), pg. 30.
  208. All wording from the CWPA Outcomes Statement is taken from “WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year Composition (3.0), Approved July 17, 2014,” CWPA Website, (18 Jul 2019), accessed at 
  209. WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year Composition (v3.0), (adopted 17 July 2014), accessed at, pg. 3.
  210. For more British English dialect differences, see, Jonnie Robinson, “Grammatical Variation Across the UK,” British Library, website, (24 Apr 2019), accessed at To see an interesting online website worth sharing with students on Hong Kong English, see, Contributors, “CCGL9038-2013-A09: An imaginary task force for the promotion of Hong Kong English,” The Association of Hong Kong English, The University of Hong Kong, (2012-2013), accessed at
  211. To learn about the history of English and the languages in the U.S., see, Dennis Baron, The English-Only Question: An Official Language for Americans?, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990); see also, Harmeet Kaur, “FYI: English isn't the official language of the United States,” CNN, (15 Jun 2018), accessed at; Karl J. R. Arndt, “German as the Official Language of the United States of America?” Monatshefte, vol. 68, pp. 129–150. 
  212. To read more about the zero copula, as well other ways “to be” is used  in Black English, see, Smitherman (1977), pp. 9-10, 19-23.
  213. For a good resource for such grammatical diversity in English see, Kyle Parsard, “Null copula,” Yale Grammatical Diversity Project: English in North America, (2016), accessed at Updated by Jim Wood (2017) and Katie Martin (2018).
  214. Kimmerer (2013), p. 53.
  215. Kimmerer (2013), p. 55.
  216. Richard E. Nisbett, The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently . . . and Why, (New York: The Free Press, 2003). See also, Richard E. Nisbett and Takahiko Masuda, “Culture and Point of View,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, (16 Sep 2003), vol. 100, no. 19, pp. 11163–11170, accessed at; Li-Jun Ji, Peng, Kaiping., & Nisbett, Richard E, “Culture, Control, And Perception Of Relationships In The Environment,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (2000), vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 943–955.
  217. Gloria Anzaldúa, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, 2nd edition, (San Francisco: Ante Lute Books, 1987/1999), p. 23.
  218. Anzaldúa (1987/1999), p. 24.
  219. Anzaldúa (1987/1999), p. 100-101.
  220. NCTE/CCCC contributors, “Students’ Right to Their Own Language,” statement, (April 1974, reaffirmed November 2003, annotated bibliography added August 2006, reaffirmed November 2014), accessed at 
  221. Rudyard Kipling, “The White Man’s Burden: The United States & The Philippine Islands, 1899.” Rudyard Kipling’s Verse: Definitive Edition (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1929), accessed at 
  222. To read about philippine colonial educational and assessments, see Keith L. Harms, “Assessment’s Word Work: Early Twentieth Century American Imperialism and the Colonial Function of the Monolingual Writing Construct,” in Mya Poe, Asao B. Inoue, and Norbert Elliot (eds.), Writing, Assessment, Social Justice, and the Advancement of Opportunity, (WAC Clearinghouse and University Press of Colorado, 2018), pp. 105-133; to read about Indian boarding schools and see a list of the more than 350 schools, see National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition, “U.S. Indian Boarding School History,” web site, accessed at; to read about the use of English as a way to solidify British rule in India and Indian responses, see David Thomas Boven, Patriots and Practical Men: British Educational Policy and The Responses of Colonial Subjects in India, 1880-1890, (Loyola University Chicago, 2017), Doctoral Dissertation; to read about the history of xenophobia in the U.S., see Erika Lee, America for Americans: A History of Xenophobia in the United States, (Basic Books, 2019). 
  223. Emma Taggart, “This 1,288-Word Run-On Sentence Broke Records and Inspired Hundreds of Modern Writers,” My Modern Met, (18 Mar 2019), accessed at
  224. William Faulkner, Absolom, Absolom!, (New York: Vintage Books, 1936/1990), p. 3.
  225. William Strunk and E.B. White, The Elements of Style, 3rd edition, (McMillian, 1979), pp. 25-26.
  226. Asao B. Inoue, Above The Well: An Antiracist Literacy Argument from A Boy of Color, (WAC Clearinghouse and Utah State UP, 2021), p. 78-88. 
  227. Strunk and White (1979), p. 22, 68.
  228. Chris Anderson, Free/Style: A Direct Approach to Writing, (Houghton Mifflin, 1991).
  229. "because, adv., conj., and n." OED Online, (Oxford University Press, September 2021), accessed at
  230. "which, pron. and adj." OED Online, (Oxford University Press, September 2021), accessed at
  231. David Crystal, The Stories of English, (Allen Lane/ Penguin Books, 2004).
  232. Alice Walker, “Everyday Use,” Harper Magazine, (Apr 1973), accessed at 
  233. To learn more about MF DOOM (Daniel Dumile) and his influence on the rap industry, see, Dean Lambert, “Understanding MF DOOM | The Best MC With No Chain Ya Ever Heard,” (Aug 31, 2019), accessed at; see also, Jožef Kolarič, “Literary Intertextuality in the Lyrics of GZA, MF DOOM, Aesop Rock and Billy Woods,” XA proceedings, vol. 2, (May 2018), accessed at 
  234. You can find the lyrics to “Rhinestone Cowboy” at 
  235. "remedy, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, September 2020, Accessed 1 November 2020; "remedial, adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, September 2020, Accessed 1 November 2020.
  236. William Strunk, Jr, and E. B. white, The Elements of Style, 3rd edition, (New York & London: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1959/1979), p. 84. 
  237. Valentin Nikolaevich Voloshinov, Marxism and The Philosophy of Language, Ladislav Matejka and I. R. Titunik (trans.), (Cambridge, MA and London: 1929/2000), p. 66.
  238. The month his memoir came out, Garner tweeted: “Is there a liberal bias in the media? Here’s what I experienced last year: more than one publisher declined to publish Nino and Me, my memoir, on grounds that they just couldn’t bring themselves to put out a book casting Justice Scalia in a favorable light.” Bryan Garner’s tweet is accessed at:
  239. Here, I use “folx” instead of “folks” in order to be more gender inclusive. To read about this, see, Kells McPhillips, “What You Need To Know About the Letter ‘X’ in Words Like Folx, Womxn, and Latinx,” Well and Good, (31 Aug 2020), accessed at 
  240. LuMing Mao, “Beyond Bias, Binary, and Border: Mapping Out the Future of Comparative Rhetoric.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly, vol. 43, no. 3, (Taylor & Francis Group, 2013), pp. 209–25. See also, Christopher Tindale, The Anthropology of Argument: Cultural Foundations of Rhetoric and Reason, (Routledge, 2021), p. 23. 
  241. Lauren Davis, “5 Things Every Teacher Should Be Doing To Meet the Common Core State Standards,” white paper from Eye on Education, (Larchmont, NY, 2012), p. 3.
  242. Aristotle saw rhetoric as inventional (i.e. an act that invents ways to persuade audiences), naming three artistic proofs in Book 1 of Rhetoric: logos, pathos, and ethos. He saw all three as essential but favoring logos. See, Aristotle, Rhetoric, Internet Classics Archive, W. Rhys Roberts (trans.), (350 BCE./n.d.), accessed at For a brief discussion of Aristotle’s artistic proofs, see, James A. Herrick, The History and Theory of Rhetoric: An Introduction, 5th ed., (London & New York: Routledge, 2016), pp. 78-81.
  243. Davis (2012), p. 4.
  244. For Aristotle’s discussions of enthymeme, see Rhetoric, Book I.2, 1357a7–18, and Rhetoric. Book II.22, 1395b24–26. You can read a summary of his discussion of enthymeme at Christof Rapp, "Aristotle's Rhetoric", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), accessed at
  245. Papers of John F. Kennedy. Pre-Presidential Papers. Senate Files. Speeches and the Press. Speech Files, 1953-1960. “The New Frontier,” acceptance speech of Senator John F. Kennedy, Democratic National Convention, 15 July 1960. JFKSEN-0910-015. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.
  246. To read more about kairos in rhetoric of ancient Greece, see, Ekaterina V. Haskins, Logos and Power in Isocrates and Aristotle, (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2004), pp. 66-70.
  247. See Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, Books 1-3, (Harvard UP, 1920), first published circa 95 CE. See also, James Herrick, The History and Theory of Rhetoric: An Introduction, 6th ed., (Routledge, 2018), p. 120.
  248. Isocrates believed that a good Athenian citizen-orator needed three things: natural ability, practical experience, and formal training. I’m translating “natural ability” to mean more than simply being good with words, but being ethical since Isocrates emphasizes “honesty of character” and “sobriety and justice” in good orators. See Isocrates, “Against the Sophists,” in Isocrates, Volume II, George Norlin (trans.), (Harvard UP, 2000), pp. 173-177.
  249. Gorgias was also a 5th to 4th century BCE orator and teacher of rhetoric. I’m referring here to his fragment, “Encomium of Helen,” published in Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg, The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present, 2nd ed., (St. Martin’s Press, 2000), pp. 44-46. The collection also has a useful introduction to Gorgias.
  250. To read about Plato’s argument over rhetoric versus dialectic (loosely understood as philosophy and logic), see Plato, Gorgias, Project Gutenberg Ebook, Benjamin Jowett (trans.), (c.380 BCE./ 2008, updated 2013), accessed at
  251. Kim Elsesser, “Lawsuit Claims SAT And ACT Are Biased—Here’s What Research Says” Forbes,  (11 Dec 2019), accessed at; Richard V. Reeves and Dimitrios Halikias, “Race gaps in SAT scores highlight inequality and hinder upward mobility,” The Brookings Institute website, (1 Feb 2017), accessed at Joseph A. Soares, “Dismantling White Supremacy Includes Ending Racist Tests like the SAT and ACT,” Teachers College Press, blog, (22 Jun 2020), accessed at 
  252. Tindale (2021), p. 174. 
  253. See Walter Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word, (Routledge, 1982); Eric Havelock, Preface to Plato, (Harvard UP, 1963).
  254. Tindale (2021), p. 56 and 59.
  255. To read about the need for sustainable biodiversity, see Michael Pollan, The Botany of Desire: A Plant's-Eye View of the World, (New York: Random House, 2002).
  256. Common Core State Standards Initiative Validation Committee, Reaching Higher: A Report from the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & The Council of Chief State School Officers, (Jun 2010), p. 1, accessed at
  257. Common Core State Standards Initiative Validation Committee (Jun 2010), p. 1. By my accounting, I could not identify racially two of the validation committee’s members. However, it is clear that the committee was predominantly elite and white.
  258. The two major professional organizations that most postsecondary writing program administrators and faculty are members of each began processes to investigate racism and white supremacy in their academic fields’ and organizations. See, Baker-Bell et al, “This Ain’t Another Statement! This is a DEMAND for Black Linguistic Justice!” Position Statement by the Conference on College Composition and Communication, (Jul 2020), accessed at See also, a Mark Blaauw-Hara, “WPAs Share Responsibility to Advocate for Racial Justice,” video statement, Council of Writing Program Administrators Website, (4 Jun 2020), accessed at 
  259. To read the WPA Outcomes Statement, see, “WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year Composition (3.0),” CWPA Website, (17 Jul 2014), accessed at
  260. The task force was made up of two Black men (one a composition director and one a national expert in code-meshing in teaching communication), two Asian (one a linguistics expert in second-language learning, and me), a Black woman (who is the Director of Academic Student Services and the Writing Center at her university),  a Latina (an expert in decolonial theory and rhetoric), and a white-passing woman (a dean of the Extended University and the director of composition at her university).
  261. For a brief history of the original drafting and leaders involved, see (Feb 2010) by Patty Ericsson.
  262. In an email exchange (11/19/2020) with the current President of the CWPA, Mark Blaau-Hara, I inquired into the demographics of the CWPA membership. Of all the members, 12% identify as people of color (37 out of 301 total members on record). Of all the Presidents who have presided over the CWPA, all were white, nine of the nineteen total were women. Of the twelve current Executive Board members of the organization, one is an Asian woman, the rest are white, with eight women and three men.
  263. Besides, of course, my own critique that I’ve already mentioned: Asao B. Inoue, “Racism in Writing Programs and the CWPA,” Journal of the Council of Writing Program Administrators, vol. 40, no. 1, (Fall 2016), pp. 134-154.
  264. Contributors, Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, Appendix A: Research Supporting Key Elements of the Standards, Glossary of Key Terms, Common Core Standards State Initiative website, (n.d.), p. 24,  accessed at
  265. Thomas King, The Truth About Stories: A Native Narrative, (University of Minnesota Press, 2008). Aja Martinez, Counterstory: The Rhetoric and Writing of Critical Race Theory, (NCTE, 2020). Christopher W. Tindale, The Anthropology of Argument: Cultural Foundations of Rhetoric and Reason, (Routledge, 2021). Geneva Smitherman, Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America, (Wayne State UP, 1977/1986). Geneva Smitherman, Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner, revised edition (Mariner Books, 1994/2000). April Baker-Bell, Linguistic Justice: Black Language, Literacy, Identity, and Pedagogy, (Routledge, 2020). Carmen Kynard, Vernacular Insurrections: Race, Black Protest, and the New Century in Composition-Literacies Studies, (SUNY Press, 2013). Barry Kroll, The Open Hand: Arguing as an Art of Peace, (Utah State UP, 2013).
  266. To read more about this, see, Gerald Graff, Beyond the Culture Wars: How Teaching the Conflicts Can Revitalize American Education, (Norton, 1992).
  267. Common Core Standards, Appendix A, (n.d.), p. 24.
  268. Carlin Borsheim-Black and Sophia Tatiana Sarigianides, Letting Go of Literary Whiteness: Antiracist Literature Instruction for White Students, (Teachers College Press, 2019). 
  269. Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein, They Say / I Say: The Moves That Matter In Academic Writing, 4th ed., (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2018).
  270. Graff and Birkenstein (2018), p. 1.
  271. Tindale (2021), pg. 80.
  272. Tindale (2021), pgs. 85, 86.
  273. Gloria Anzualdúa, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, 2nd ed., (Aunt Lute Books, 1987/1999).
  274. Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein, They Say/ I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, 3rd ed. (W. W. Norton, 2014), pg. 13.
  275. Kenneth Burke, The Philosophy of Literary Form, (University of California Press, 1941), pgs. 110-111.
  276. Common Core Standards, Appendix A, (n.d.), pp. 23-24.
  277. To read more about Fulkerson’s perspective on the teaching of college writing, see Richard Fulkerson,  “Composition at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century,” College Composition and Communication, vol. 56, no. 4, (01 Jun 2005), pp. 654–687. For a critique of Fulkerson’s article that explains his politics, see Jaime Armin Mejía’s response essay in, Alan Chidsey Dickson, Jaime Armin Mejía, Jeffrey Zorn, and Patricia Harkin, “Responses to Richard Fulkerson, ‘Composition at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.’” College composition and communication, vol. 57, no. 4, (01 Jun 2006), pp. 730–762.
  278. Gerald Graff, “Hidden Intellectualism,” Pedagogy, vol. 1, no.1 (Winter 2001), pp. 21-36.
  279. See Banaji and Greenwald (2016). I discuss other resources on implicit racial biases in “Racism As A Discourse,” in Chapter 1.
  280. There are obvious others to list as well. Three award-winning Black women educators who have written about literacy education immediately come to mind: bell hooks, Elaine Richardson, and Arnetha Ball.
  281. Smitherman (1977), pp. 215-216.
  282. Bettina Love, We Want to Do More Than Survive: Abolitionist Teaching and the Pursuit of Educational Freedom, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2019); April Baker-Bell, Linguistic Justice: Black Language, Literacy, Identity, and Pedagogy, (New York: Routledge, 2020); Carla Espana and Luz Yadira Herrera, En Comunidad: Lessons for Centering the Voices and Experiences of Bilingual Latinx Students, (Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2020); Carlin Borsheim-Black and Sophia Tatiana Sarigianides, Letting Go of Literary whiteness: Antiracist Literature Instruction for White Students, (New York: Teachers College Press, 2019).
  283. Fulkerson (2005), p. 666.
  284. Mignolo explains the connections to such ideas to the triad, “modernity/coloniality/decoloniality” in chapter 6, see Mignolo (2018), p. 140, in Walter D. Mignolo and Catherine E. Walsh, On Decoloniality/Concepts, Analytics, Praxis, Duke UP, 2018. 
  285. For the concept of “delinking” see, Walter Mignolo, “DELINKING: The rhetoric of modernity, the logic of coloniality and the grammar of de-coloniality,” Cultural Studies, vol. 21, no. 2-3, (March/May) 2007, pp. 449 514; see also part II: “The Decolonial Option,” in, Walter D. Mignolo and Catherine E. Walsh, On Decoloniality/Concepts, Analytics, Praxis, Duke UP, 2018. 
  286. Mignolo (2018), p. 151.
  287. Mignolo (2007), p. 216.
  288. Mignolo (2018), p. 157.
  289. Mignolo (2018), p. 109.
  290. Rogers’ theory for use in teaching argument in college classrooms was introduced in Richard Young, Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth Pike, Rhetoric: Discovery and Change, (New York: Harcourt, 1970). For a useful discussion of the Young, Becker, and Pike’s book, and Rogerian argumentation in writing classrooms, see, Doug Brent, “Young, Becker and Pike's ‘Rogerian’ Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment,” College English, Vol. 53, No. 4, (April 1991), pp. 452-466. See also, Nathaniel Teich, “Rogerian Problem-Solving and the Rhetoric of Argumentation,” JAC, vol.7, no. 1/2 (1987), pp. 52-61.
  291. By “East Asian,” I meant Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, mainly, and by “Westerner,” I mean U.S./American. This broad binary comes from Richard Nisbett in his book, The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently… And Why, Free Press, 2003.
  292. Mignolo (2018), p. 148.
  293. Robert P. Yagelski, Writing as a Way of Being: Writing Instruction, Nonduality, and the Crisis of Sustainability, Hampton Press, 2011.
  294. Thich Nhat Hanh, Peace Is Every Step: The Path of Mindfulness in Everyday Life, (New York: Bantam, 1991), pgs. 95-98. See also, chapter six of Thich Hhat Hanh, Being Peace, (Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1987/2005). 
  295. Kimmerer (2013), pg. 238.
  296. Kimmerer (2013), pg. 239.
  297. Moria Morava, “Losing Languages, Losing Words,” CNN. (Apr 2021), accessed at 
  298. See, Marilyn Frye, “White Woman Feminist.” Willful Virgin: Essays on Feminism, (The Crossing Press, 1992), accessed at See also the section on “paternalism” in white supremacist cultures in Tema Okun, “White Supremacy Culture,” workshop handout, DRWorks, (n.d.), accessed at For a fuller discussion of white supremacy culture, see, Centre for Community Organizations, “White Supremacy Culture in Organization,” adapted from workshops by Dismantling Racism Works, (2019), accessed at
  299. Frye (1992), n.p.
  300. For a discussion on how to engage students in antiracist reading practices, which are a kind of deep attending and listening, see, Asao B. Inoue, “Teaching Antiracist Reading,” Journal of College Reading and Learning, vol. 50, no. 3, (23 Jul 2020), pp. 134-156.
  301.  Mignolo (2018), pp. 177-178.
  302. Mignolo (2018), p. 143. 

This information and resources on this page are offered for free in order to engage language and literacy teachers of all levels in antiracist work and dialogue. The hope is that it will help raise enough money to do more substantial and ongoing antiracist work by funding the Asao and Kelly Inoue Antiracist Teaching Endowment, housed at Oregon State University. Read more about the endowment on my endowment page. Please consider donating to the endowment. Thank you for your help and engagement.