Notes for Blogbook -- What It Means to be an Antiracist Teacher

This page is meant to provide the footnotes that accompany the blogbook, What It Means To Be An Antiracist Teacher: Cultivating Antiracist Orientations in The ELA Classroom. I'll be adding notes on this page as I continue to post the blogbook. 

Notes

  1. “Race.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, accessed at: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/race.
  2. See pgs. 6-7 of W.E.B. Du Bois, “The Conservation of Races,” American Negro Academy, Occasional Papers, No. 2, (Washington, D.C.: American Negro Academy, 1897), pp. 5-15. Accessed at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/31254/31254-h/31254-h.htm. 
  3. Du Bois understood race as an historically changing and so unstable concept, as well as intersectional by today’s vocabulary. Over time, he was influenced by his increasing Marxian ideas. To read about his later views on race, see W.E.B. Du Bois, Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept, (New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 1940/2011); see also, Dan S. Green, and Earl Smith, “W.E.B. DuBois and the Concepts of Race and Class,” Phylon vol. 44, no. 4 (December 1, 1983), pp. 262–272.
  4. All four UNESCO statements can be found in United Nations Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organization, Four Statements on the Race Question, (France: Obertbur-Rennes, 1969), accessed at https://tinyurl.com/y4elchxc. The quoted material comes from pp. 50-51. For a more contemporary explanation of the scientific agreements about race see, Vivian Chou, “How Science and Genetics are Reshaping the Race Debate of the 21st Century,” Science in the News, blog from Harvard University, The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, (17 Apr 2017), accessed at http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/science-genetics-reshaping-race-debate-21st-century/.
  5. See pg. 413 in Patricia Mccann-mortimer, Martha Augoustinos, and Amanda Lecouteur, “‘Race’ and the Human Genome Project: Constructions of Scientific Legitimacy,” Discourse & Society, vol. 15, no. 4 (July 1, 2004): 409–432; see also, pg. 217 in Hussein Mohsen, “Race and Genetics: Somber History, Troubled Present,” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, vol. 93 (2020), pp. 215-219. 
  6. Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States, 3rd edition, (New York and London: Routledge, 1986/2015), p. 106. 
  7. To read a definitive account of White racial formations in the U.S. see Matthew Frye Jacobson, Whiteness Of A Different Color:  European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998); see also, David Roediger, Working Toward Whiteness: How American’s Immigrants Became White, The Strange Journey From Ellis Island to the Suburbs, (New York: Basic Books, 2005/2018); to learn about the Irish-White racial formation, see also Noel Ignatiev, How The Irish Became White, (New York: Routledge, 1995/2009); for an excellent history of White people, see Nell Irvin Painter, The History of White People, (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010). 
  8. Omi and Winant (2015), p. 109, emphasis in original.
  9. Omi and Winant (2015), pp. 110-111, emphasis in original. 
  10. The Atwater interview is available in Rick Perlstein, “Exclusive: Lee Atwater’s Infamous 1981 Interview on the Southern Strategy,” The Nation (13 Nov 2012), accessed at https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/exclusive-lee-atwaters-infamous-1981-interview-southern-strategy/. A version can also be found in Robin DiAngelo, White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard For White People to Talk About Race, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2018), p. 33.
  11. You can read about the theory and history of Orientalism in Edward Said, Orientalism, (New York: Vintage Books, 1978/1994).
  12. To read more about interpellation, see Louis Althusser, “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,” in Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, (Monthly Review Press, 1971), Ben Brewster (Trans), accessed at https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/althusser/1970/ideology.htm. 
  13.  Ivan Hannaford, Race: The History of an Idea in the West, (Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1996), p. 5. 
  14. David Theo Goldberg, Racist Culture: Philosophy And The Politics Of Meaning, (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1993), p. 62; Michael Banton, Racial Theories (2nd ed.),  (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 17. 
  15. William Dunbar, William Dunbar: The Complete Works, John Conlee, (Ed.), (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2004), accessed at https://d.lib.rochester.edu/teams/publication/conlee-dunbar-complete-works. 
  16. Vic Satzewich, “Race, Racism, and Racialization: Contested Concepts,” In Satzewich (Ed.), Racism and Social Inequality in Canada: Concepts, Controversies, and Strategies of Resistance. (Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishers, 1998), (pp. 25-46), pp. 27.
  17. William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, (V.i. 2526-2530), Open Source Shakespeare, accessed at https://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/views/plays/playmenu.php?WorkID=merchantvenice.
  18. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, (Andrew Crooke, at the Green Dragon in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1651). Project Gutenberg Ebook, 2013, accessed at https://www.gutenberg.org/files/3207/3207-h/3207-h.htm#link2H_4_0122. For a summary of Hobbes' argument, see Hannaford (1996), pp. 192-194.
  19. This sentiment has been around for a long time in Western societies, well before Hobbes. It can be traced back to the ancient Greeks in Homer (circa 9th or 12th century BCE), Hesiod (circa 7th or 8th century BCE), and Thucydides (circa 460-400 BCE).
  20. Consider the British empire during about 1700 until today. It has had 15 African, 13 American, 5 Asian and South East Asian, and 8 Middle Eastern colonies (possessions). This doesn’t include their dominions, such as New Zealand, Australia, and Canada.
  21. Hannaford (1996), p. 195. Also see, John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Volume 2, (London: Eliz. Holt, for Thomas Basset, at the George in Fleet Street, near St. Dunstan’s Church, 1689). Project Gutenberg Ebook, 2018, accessed at http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/10616/pg10616.html.
  22. To read more about travel literature and narratives, see Faraz Anjum, “Travel Writing, History and Colonialism: An Analytical Study,” Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, vol. 51, no. 2, (Jul-Dec 2014), pp. 191-205; Elizabeth Zold, “Discomforting Narratives: Teaching Eighteenth-Century Women’s Travelogues,” ABO: Interactive Journal for Women in the Arts, 1640-1830, vol. 4, no. 2, (Fall 2014), pp. 1-15; Richard E. Strassberg, translator, annotations, & introduction, Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writing from Imperial China, (Berkeley: University of California Press,  1994), accessed at  http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft2m3nb15s/. 
  23. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Baconian Method,” Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 17 April 2020), accessed at https://www.britannica.com/science/Baconian-method.
  24. Jonathan Barnes, Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982/1996/2000), pgs. 116-117.
  25. For instance, in Book I of Rhetoric, Aristotle not only categorizes rhetoric into modes (i.e. ethos, pathos, and logos) and kinds (i.e. deliberative, forensic, and epideictic), but also classifies governments into types (i.e. democracy, oligarchy, aristocracy, and monarchy). In Book II, he distinguishes emotions in audiences (e.g. calmness, Friendship and amnity, pity, envy, etc.), lines of argumentation, and, of course, the use of enthymemes from maxims (i.e. induction from deduction). In Book I of Politics, Aristotle organizes and defines the state and provides a justification for its “nature” through a teleological and inductive method as well. In Book III, he defines citizenship and makes inherent distinctions between citizens and “foreigners and slaves,” as well as types of kingship. See Aristotle, The Politics. Trans. T. A. Sinclair. Revised and Re-Presented by Trevor J. Saunders, (London: Penguin, 1992); Aristotle, The Rhetoric and Poetics of Aristotle. Trans. Rhys Roberts, (New York: Modern Library, McGraw-Hill, 1984).
  26. See pg. 4 of Siep Stuurman, “François Bernier and the Invention of Racial Classification,” History Workshop Journal, No. 50 (Autumn, 2000), pp. 1-21. 
  27. See pg. 44 in Jana Evans, “Genre, race, erasure: a genealogical critique of ‘American’ autobiography,” In Joseph A. Young and Jana Evans Braziel (eds.). Erasing Public Memory: Race, Aesthetics, and Cultural Amnesia in the Americas, (Mercer University Press, 2007), pp. 35–70; see also pg. 35 Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, (W.W. Norton & Company, 1981), p. 35; See also pg. 13 of Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze, Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader, (Blackwell, 1997), p. 13.
  28. Evans (2007), p. 44.
  29. To read more about Buffon’s categories and understanding of race, see Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, “The Geographical and Cultural Distribution of Mankind,” in Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze (ed.), Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader, (Blackwell, 1997), pp. 15-28; Hannaford (1996), pgs. 204-205; Sandra Knapp, “Comte de Buffon: A Grand Theorist,” in Robert Huxley (ed.), The Great Naturalists, (Thames and Hudson, 2007). pp. 140–148.
  30. To read more about Buffon’s contributions to evolutionary theory and Darwinism, see Roberta L. Millstein, "Evolution," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2019 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), accessed at https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/evolution.
  31. To learn more about Blumenbach’s evolving terms that eventually get translated from Latin to English as “race,” and the differences between many early race pseudo-scientists, see Douglas Bronwen, “Climate to Crania: Science and the Racialization of Human Difference,” in Douglas Bronwen and Chris Ballard (eds.), Foreign Bodies: Oceania and the Science of Race 1750–1940, (Canabara, Australian National University Press, 2008), pp. 33-96.
  32. Hannaford (1996), pgs. 207-208.
  33. Eze (1997), pg. 83.
  34. Hannaford (1996), pg. 211.
  35. In his text, Blumenbach’s figure offers the following caption: “Five very select skulls from my collection, to demonstrate the equivalent number of the principal varieties of mankind: 1. Tungun [Mongolian]; 2. Caribbean [American]; 3. young female Georgian [Caucasian]; 4. Tahitian [Malay]; 5. Ethiopian of Guinea [Ethiopian]”; see Johann Freidrich Blumenbach, De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa, 3rd edition (Gottingae: Vandenhoek et Ruprecht, 1795), pp. 324-6; plate 2; see also, Bronwen (2008), pg. 38.
  36. Eze (1997), pg. 86.
  37. One can find references to Circassian beauties as far back as the Late Middle Ages (1250 to 1500 CE) since the area was key in trade routes, and later by Voltaire (Letters on the English, 1734), Henry Fielding (Tom Jones, 1749), Lord Byron, (Don Juan, 1818–24), and many later artworks categorized as Orientalism by artists like Giulio Rosati, Eugène Delacroix, Léon Cogniet, and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.
  38. Phrenology was the study of bumps and contours of the skull that was said to explain mental and intellectual traits and capacities. It was first popularized by German physician Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828), and used for racist conclusions about many different people. While the study and use of phrenology continued into the 20th century, by the mid-1800s, phrenology was mostly debunked. There was too much evidence against it. See, Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopedia of Medical History, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985), pg. 260.
  39. See Chapter 4, “The Spectacle of the ‘Other’” in Stuart Hall, Jessica Evans, and Sean Nixon, Representation (Open University Press, 1997/2013), pgs. 215-287.
  40. "Negro, n. and adj.". OED Online. June 2020. Oxford University Press. https://www-oed-com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/viewdictionaryentry/Entry/125898 (accessed August 27, 2020). See also, Hannaford (1996), pg. 210; and Thatcher, Oliver. "Vasco da Gama: Round Africa to India, 1497-1498 CE". Modern History Sourcebook, (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co.), accessed at https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1497degama.asp; see also contributors, “Negro (the word) a breif history,” African American Registry, (2020), accessed at https://aaregistry.org/story/negro-the-word-a-history/.
  41. Kwame Nantambu, “Origin of terms 'Negro' and Afrika,” Trinicenter.com, (09 Jan 2007), accessed at http://www.trinicenter.com/kwame/2007/0901.htm; see also, Richard B. Moore, The Name “Negro”: Its Origin and Evil Use, (Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1960/1992).
  42. Ibram X. Kendi, Stamped From The Beginning: A Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America, (New York: Nation Books, 2015), pgs. 80-81.
  43. Samuel H. Williamson and Louis Cain, "Measuring Slavery in 2016 dollars," MeasuringWorth, 2020, Accessed at www.measuringworth.com/slavery.php.
  44.  See Dora Mekouar, “Here Are the 10 Richest US Presidents of All Time,” (08 Jul 2019), accessed at https://www.voanews.com/usa/all-about-america/here-are-10-richest-us-presidents-all-time.
  45. Thomas Jefferson, et al, Declaration of Independence, (4 Jul 1776), accessed at https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript. 
  46. To read more on the economics of the South, see Greg Timmons, “How Slavery Became the Economic Engine of the South,” History.com, (6 Mar 2018/02 Sep 2020), accessed at https://www.history.com/news/slavery-profitable-southern-economy.
  47.  This euphemism, “no skin off my back,” might also be tied to slavery through the practice of flogging as a punishment; however, the practice was in place on sailing ships for quite some time before that. See, Michael G. Williams, “Where'd that phrase come from?” Erickson Living Tribune, (07 Aug 2014), accessed at https://tinyurl.com/y4msrzhs.
  48. Sigmund Freud believed that to interpret the meaning and significance of dreams, one needed to account for multiple separate factors in the life of the dreamer. Accounting for multiple, overlapping factors for the same features in a dream would help explain the dream’s meaning. See Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, A. A. Brill (Trans.), (London & New York: MacMillan and Company, 1899/1922).
  49. Ralph Clayton, “E. A. Poe, dealer in slaves,” Baltimore Sun, (01 Oct 1993), accessed at https://www.baltimoresun.com/news/bs-xpm-1993-10-01-1993274244-story.html.
  50. Clayton (1993), np. Clayton attributes to Poe the following: “Nothing is wanting but manly discussion to convince our own people at least, that in continuing to command the services of their slaves, they violate no law, divine or human, and that in the faithful discharge of their reciprocal obligations lies their true duty.”
  51. To read about John Allan, see “John Allan,” People page, The Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore, (27 Jan 2019), accessed at https://www.eapoe.org/people/allanj.htm.
  52. The estate of Glenarvon has a website with documents that show the accounting of William Galt’s estate at his death. See http://www.glenarvon.com/inventory.pdf.
  53. To read about the tacit influence of slavery on some of Poe’s other writings, see, Rene Van Slooten, “Edgar Allan Poe and the Fall of the House: The Tale of the Announced American Apocalypse,” Baltimore Post-Examiner, (04 Jun 2014), accessed at https://tinyurl.com/y4kn3ahr. See also, Teresa Goddu, Gothic America: Narrative, History, and Nation (New Columbia Univ. Pres, 1997);  Betsy Erkkila, “The Poetics of Whiteness: Poe and the Racial Imaginary,” in Kennedy and Weissberg (eds.), Romancing the Shadow, (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001).
  54. See chapter 12, “Colonization,” of Kendi (2016).
  55. History.com editors, “Liberian independence proclaimed,” This Day in History: July 26, History.com, (updated 24 Jul 2020), accessed at https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/liberian-independence-proclaimed; for a good set of primary resources and history on African American colonization and the American Colonization Society, see, contributors, “Colonization,” The African-American Mosaic, The Library of Congress, (nd), accessed at https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html.
  56. Edgar Allen Poe, “The Raven,” Poets.org, (1849), accessed at https://poets.org/poem/raven.
  57. For a brief history with illustrations and sources of the historical publication details of Stowe’s novel, see, Michael Winship, “Uncle Tom's Cabin: History of the Book in the 19th-Century United States,” website, (2007), accessed at http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/interpret/exhibits/winship/winship.html.
  58. United States, “The Fugitive slave law. [Hartford, Ct.? : s.n., 185-?], Broadside, Hartford, Ct., Library of Congress, (1850), accessed at https://lccn.loc.gov/98101767; History.com editors, “Fugitive Slave Acts,” History.com, (updated 11 Feb 2020), accessed at https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/fugitive-slave-acts; see also, contributors, “The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850,” lesson for U.S. History, Common Core, Constitutional Rights Foundation, BRIA 34:2 (Winter 2019), accessed at https://www.crf-usa.org/images/pdf/Fugitive-Slave-Law-1850.pdf.
  59. Evan Hill, Ainara Tiefenthäler, Christiaan Triebert, Drew Jordan, Haley Willis, and Robin Stein, “How George Floyd Was Killed in Police Custody,” The New York Times, (updated 13 Aug 2020).
  60. Derald Wing Sue, Race Talk And The Conspiracy of Silence: Understanding and Facilitating Difficult Dialogues on Race, (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2015), pg. 90.
  61. Heike Bauer, The Hirschfeld Archives: Violence, Death, and Modern Queer Culture, (Philadelpha: Temple Univesity Press, 2017), pgs. 14-15, accessed at https://library.oapen.org/handle/20.500.12657/31402. See also, Magnus Hirschfeld, Racism, (Trans. and Ed. by Eden and Cedar Paul), (Blackpool: London Publications Ltd, April 22, 1938).
  62. See Joe Feagin and Sean Elias, “Rethinking Racial Formation Theory: A Systemic Racism Critique,” Ethnic And Racial Studies, vol. 36, no. 6 (2013), pg. 943 (emphasis in original); see also Omi and Winant (2015), pgs. 127-128. Omi and Winant (2015) have a brief discussion of Hirschfeld’s book on pages 127-128. 
  63. To read about the pervasive, de jure settler colonial violence and genocide perpetrated by the U.S. government and citizens against all indigenous peoples in North America, see, Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2014). 
  64. Jacobson (1998), pg. 55; David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness, Revised Edition, (London & New York: Verso, 2002/1991), pg. 146.
  65. My apologies for the use of the N-word here. I don’t use the word lightly or flippantly. It is not my practice to reproduce this word, unless I need to be clear about the reference and its rhetorical impact, or if I’m reproducing a quote with the word in it. This word was also applied to early Italian immigrants, see Jacobson (1998), pg. 57. 
  66. Ignatiev (1995), see also, Jacobson (1998), pg. 95.
  67. “Raven’s Home” is a 2017- present Disney sitcom spinoff of “That’s So Raven” that aired from 2003-2007. Raven is the lead character, a supernatural, psychic Black girl, turned mother in the newer sitcom.
  68. Goldberg (1993), pgs. 41-42.
  69. Said (1978/1994), pgs. 202-203.
  70. The names of the eight victims of the March 16, 2021, Atlanta, Georgia shooting were: Delaina Ashley Yaun Gonzalez, Paul Andre Michels, Xiaojie Tan, Daoyou Feng, Hyun Jung Grant, Soon Chung Park, Suncha Kim,  and Yong Ae Yue. 
  71. Yam, Kimmy, “There were 3,800 anti-Asian racist incidents, mostly against women, in past year,” NBC News, (16 Mar 2021), accessed at https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/there-were-3-800-anti-asian-racist-incidents-mostly-against-n1261257.  
  72. Haynes, Suyin, “‘This Isn't Just a Problem for North America.' The Atlanta Shooting Highlights the Painful Reality of Rising Anti-Asian Violence Around the World,” Time, (22 Mar 2021), accessed at https://time.com/5947862/anti-asian-attacks-rising-worldwide/. 
  73. For some Asian American history, see, Erika Lee, The Making of Asian America: A History, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015); Ronald Takkai, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, (New York: Little, Brown & Company, 1993), pp. 192-221; Robert G. Lee, Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999).
  74. To read a few brief accounts of anti-Asian racism in the U.S., see, Bruce Janu, “Yes, “Kung Flu” is very racist. And there is a history,” Medium, (24 Jun 2020), accessed at https://medium.com/@bdjanu/yes-kung-flu-is-very-racist-and-there-is-a-history-17dbd914ad8; Machelle Walfred, Illustrating Chinese Exclusion, blog, (2014), accessed at https://thomasnastcartoons.com. 
  75. To read about Fu Manchu and the “Yellow Peril” in the U.S., see, Robert G. Lee (1999), pp. 113-117. For an interesting account of the way Dr. Fu Manchu was represented in a more ambiguous way, see, Phil Baker, “Fu Manchu and China: Was the 'yellow peril incarnate' really appallingly racist?” Independent, (20 Oct 2015), accessed at https://tinyurl.com/y3jut4vk.
  76. To read about the history of the “Yellow Peril” idea, see Robert G. Lee (1999), pgs. 106-144; Eugene Franklyn Wong, “The Early Years: Asians in American Films Prior to WWII,” in Screening Asian Americans, Peter X. Feng (ed.), (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2002), pgs. 53-70; for a deeper history, see, Gina Marchetti, Romance and the “Yellow Peril”: Race, Sex, and Discoursive Strategies in Hollywood Fiction, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
  77. Said (1978/1994), pg. 40.
  78. Said (1978/1994), pgs. 245-246.
  79. To read about the “magical Negro” chacter, see Marvin Jones, Race, Sex, and Suspicion: The Myth of the Black Male, (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2005), pgs. 15-40; Matt Zoller Seitz, “The offensive movie cliche that won't die,” Salon, (14 Sep 2010), accessed at https://www.salon.com/2010/09/14/magical_negro_trope/; Rita Kempley, “Movies’ ‘Magic Negro’ Saves the Day -- But at The Cost of His Soul” (reprinted), The Black Commentator, (3 Jul 2003), accessed at http://blackcommentator.com/49/49_magic.html; Nnedi Okorafor-Mbachu, “Stephen King's Super-Duper Magical Negroes,” Strange Horizons, (25 Oct 2004), accessed at https://tinyurl.com/y4t7tdz4. You can find a list of mostly films with magical Negro occurances at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Magical_Negro_occurrences_in_fiction.  
  80. “What is Reasonable Suspicion?” Flex Your Rights (FLEX), Website, (nd.), accessed at https://www.flexyourrights.org/faqs/what-is-reasonable-suspicion/. 
  81. Terry v. Ohio, 392, US 1, (1968), accessed FindLaw, at https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/392/1.html#t18.
  82. Shelley S. Hyland, Ph.D., and Elizabeth Davis, “Local Police Departments, 2016: Personnel,” U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Oct 2019), pgs. 7-8, accessed at https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/lpd16p.pdf. 
  83. To read about implicit biases, see, Mahzarin R. Banaji and Anthony G. Greenwald, Blind Spot: Hidden Biases of Good People, (New York: Bantan, 2016). You can also test your own implicit biases at their website, which has numerous tests of various implicit biases, at https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/index.jsp. 
  84. “Understanding Implicit Bias,” Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity, the Ohio State University (2015), accessed at http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/research/understanding-implicit-bias/. 
  85. Gordon F. Goodwin, and Sarah Lawton, “The Role of Libraries in Advancing Racial Equity,” presentation, WiLSWorld 2019, (24 Jul 2019), Madison, Wisconsin, accessed at https://www.slideshare.net/wilsjen/the-role-of-libraries-in-advancing-racial-equity. 
  86. Banaji and Greenwald (2016), pgs. 149-165. 
  87. The nobel prize winning Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Princeton, Daniel Kahneman, explains many mind bugs, the ways our brains make “fast” thinking, which often lead to mistakes and errors in judgements and decisions. The mind bug I’m referring to is “What you see is all there is” or WYSIATI heuristic. See, Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011), 85-88.
  88. Stephon Clark, a 22 year old father and husband, was shot 20 times in his grandparents’ backyard in Sacramento, California on March 18, 2018 by the police. The police claimed they saw him holding a gun, which turned out to be a cell phone. See, Rhiannon Walker, “A timeline of Stephon Clark’s death at the hands of Sacramento police and the aftermath,” The Undefeated, (23 Mar 2018), accessed at https://tinyurl.com/y5oa3sfj. 
  89. Goldberg (1993), pg. 46.
  90. To learn more about Asian U.S. history, see Takaki (1993). For a briefer account that centers on the way race has been integral to the building of the U.S. as an empire and nation, see Ronald Takaki, Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th Century America, revised edition, (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1979/2000).
  91. Goldberg (1993), pg. 46.
  92. Goldberg (1993), pg. 47.
  93. Goldberg (1993), pg. 49.

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